Landscapes of Inevitable Catastrophe
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Last month, The Economist reported on the widespread presence of radioactive tailings piles—waste rock left over from Soviet mining operations—in southern Kyrgyzstan. Many of the country's huge, unmonitored mountains of hazardous materials are currently leaching into the local water supply.
In a particularly alarming detail, even if you wanted to avoid the danger, you might not necessarily know where to find it: "Fences and warning signs have been looted for scrap metal," we read.
Frequent landslides and seasonal floods also mean that the tailings are at risk of washing downriver into neighboring countries, including into "Central Asia’s breadbasket, the Fergana Valley, which is home to over 10m people... A European aid official warns of a 'creeping environmental disaster.'"
Attempts at moving the piles have potentially made things worse, releasing "radioactive dust" that might be behind a spike in local cancers.
In addition to the sheer aesthetic horror of the landscape—a partially radioactive series of river valleys, lacking in warning signs, that writer Robert Macfarlane would perhaps call "eerie," a place where "suppressed forces pulse and flicker beneath the ground and within the air... waiting to erupt or to condense"—it's worth noting at least two things:
One, there appears to be no end in sight; as The Economist points out, the neighboring countries "are hardly on speaking terms, so cross-border co-operation is non-existent," and the costs of moving highly contaminated mine waste are well out of reach for the respective governments.
This means we can more or less confidently predict that, over the coming decades, many of these tailings piles will wash away, slowly but relentlessly, fanning out into the region's agricultural landscape.
Once these heavy metals and flecks of uranium have dispersed into the soil, silt, and even plantlife, they will be nearly impossible to re-contain; this will have effects not just over the span of human lifetimes but on a geological timescale.
Second, most of these piles are unguarded: unwatched, unmonitored, unsecured. They contain radioactive materials. They are in a region known for rising religious extremism.
Given all this, surely finding a solution here is rather urgent, before these loose mountains of geological toxins assume an altogether more terrifying new role in some future news cycle—at which point, in retrospect, articles like The Economist's will seem oddly understated.
[Image: Hand-painted radiation sign at Chernobyl, via the BBC].
Indeed, our ability even to comprehend threats posed on a geologic timescale—let alone to act on those threats politically—is clearly not up to the task of grappling with events or landscapes such as these.
To go back to Robert Macfarlane, he wrote another article earlier this year about the specialized vocabulary that has evolved for naming, describing, or cataloging terrestrial phenomena. By contrast, he suggests, we now speak with "an impoverished language for landscape" in an era during when "a place literacy is leaving us."
As Macfarlane writes, "we lack a Terra Britannica, as it were: a gathering of terms for the land and its weathers—terms used by crofters, fishermen, farmers, sailors, scientists, miners, climbers, soldiers, shepherds, poets, walkers and unrecorded others for whom particularised ways of describing place have been vital to everyday practice and perception."
Channeling Macfarlane, where is the vocabulary—where are our cognitive templates—for describing and understanding these landscapes of long-term danger and slow catastrophe?
It often seems that we can stare directly into the wasteland without fear, not because there is nothing of risk there, but because our own words simply cannot communicate the inevitability of doom.